Treatment and Prognosis of Pancreatic Cancer
What are the treatment options for Pancreatic Cancer?
What is the prognosis for Pancreatic Cancer?
Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer
When pancreatic cancer is diagnosed or even suspected, the doctor needs to know the extent (also known as the stage) of disease to plan the best treatment. Staging is a careful attempt to find out the size of the tumor in the pancreas, whether the cancer has spread, and if so, to what parts of the body. At the time of diagnosis, only about 20% of pancreatic cancers can be removed by surgery.
Surgery for pancreatic cancer is a major operation. The surgeon may remove all or part of the pancreas. The extent of surgery depends on the location and size of the tumor, the stage of the disease, and the patient's general health.
- Whipple procedure: If the tumor is in the head (the widest part) of the pancreas, the surgeon removes the head of the pancreas and part of the small intestine, bile duct, and stomach. The surgeon may also remove other nearby tissues such as lymph nodes.
- Distal pancreatectomy: The surgeon removes the body and tail of the pancreas if the tumor is in either of these parts. The surgeon commonly also removes the spleen.
- Total pancreatectomy: The surgeon removes the entire pancreas, part of the small intestine, a portion of the stomach, the common bile duct, the gallbladder, the spleen, and nearby lymph nodes.
Sometimes the cancer cannot be completely removed. If the tumor is blocking the common bile duct or small intestine, the surgeon can create a bypass. A bypass allows fluids to flow through the digestive tract. It can help relieve jaundice, pain, nausea and vomiting that often result from a blockage.
The doctor often can relieve blockage without doing bypass surgery. The doctor (generally, a specialist known as a gastroenterologist) uses an endoscope to place a stent in the blocked area. A stent is a tiny plastic or metal mesh tube that helps keep the duct or duodenum open.
After surgery, some patients are fed liquids intravenously (by IV) and through feeding tubes placed into the abdomen. Patients slowly return to eating solid foods by mouth. A few weeks after surgery, the feeding tubes are removed.
Removal of part or all of the pancreas may make it hard for a patient to digest foods. The health care team can suggest a diet plan and medicines to help relieve diarrhea, pain, cramping, or feelings of fullness. During the recovery from surgery, the doctor will carefully monitor the patient's diet and weight. At first, a patient may have only liquids and may receive extra nourishment intravenously or by feeding tube into the intestine. Solid foods are added to the diet gradually.
Also, patients may not have enough pancreatic enzymes or hormones after surgery. Those who do not have enough insulin may develop diabetes. The doctor can give the patient insulin, other hormones, and enzymes to help maintain good nutrition and proper control of the blood sugar.
When a pancreatic cancer is removed surgically, often additional treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy are recommended.
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. A large machine directs radiation at the abdomen. Radiation therapy may be given alone, or with surgery, chemotherapy, or both.
Radiation therapy affects cancer cells only in the treated area. For radiation therapy, patients go to the hospital or clinic, often 5 days a week for several weeks. Radiation therapy may cause patients to become very tired as treatment continues. Resting is important, but doctors usually advise patients to try to stay as active as they can. In addition, when patients receive radiation therapy, the skin in the treated area may sometimes become red, dry, and tender.
Radiation therapy to the abdomen may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or other problems with digestion. The health care team can offer medicine or suggest diet changes to control these problems. For most patients, the side effects of radiation therapy go away when treatment is over.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Doctors also give chemotherapy to help reduce pain and other problems caused by pancreatic cancer. The side effects of chemotherapy depend mainly on the drugs and the doses the patient receives as well as how the drugs are given. In addition, as with other types of treatment, side effects vary from patient to patient. It may be given alone, with radiation, or with surgery and radiation.
Chemotherapy is an outpatient treatment given at the hospital, clinic, or doctor's office. Chemotherapy, mainly given by injection, affects rapidly dividing cells throughout the body, including blood cells. Blood cells fight infection, help the blood to clot, and carry oxygen to all parts of the body. When anticancer drugs damage healthy blood cells, patients are more likely to get infections, may bruise or bleed easily, and may have less energy. Cells in hair roots and cells that line the stomach and intestines also divide rapidly. As a result, patients may lose their hair and may have other side effects such as poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, or mouth sores. Usually, these side effects go away gradually during the recovery periods between treatments or after treatment is over. The health care team can suggest ways to relieve side effects.
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Prognosis of Pancreatic Cancer
At this time, pancreatic cancer can be cured only when it is found at an early stage, before it has spread. However, other treatments may be able to control the disease and help patients live longer and feel better. People living with pancreatic cancer may worry about the future. They may worry about caring for themselves or their families, keeping their jobs, or continuing daily activities. Concerns about treatments and managing side effects, hospital stays, and medical bills are also common.
Palliative therapy may be chosen for treatment with patients that have incurable or uncontrollable pancreatic cancer. Palliative therapy is treatment given to relieve the symptoms and reduce the suffering caused by cancer. Palliative therapy aims to improve quality of life by controlling pain and other problems caused by this disease.
Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team can answer questions about treatment, diet, working, or other matters. Meeting with a social worker, counselor, or member of the clergy can be helpful to those who want to talk about their feelings or discuss their concerns. Often, a social worker can suggest resources for financial aid, transportation, home care, emotional support, or other services.
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